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Treatment Access: Related Resources
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decorative spacerHIV drug policies and South markets: Settling controversies
Daniele Dionisio, Claudio Fabbri, Daniela Messeri. Therapy. 2008. 5(5). 707-717. [PDF, 373]
Related Knowledge Base Chapters
decorative spacerCare of HIV Infection in the Developing World: Related Resources
Related Countries and Regions Pages
decorative spacerInternational ARV Treatment Guidelines
Journal Articles
decorative spacerInitiating patients on antiretroviral therapy at CD4 cell counts above 200 cells/µl is associated with improved treatment outcomes in South Africa
Fox MP, Sanne IM, Conradie F, Zeinecker J, Orrell C, Ive P, Rassool M, Dehlinger M, van der Host C, McIntyre J, Wood R. AIDS. 2010; 24:2041-50. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
decorative spacerTask shifting for scale-up of HIV care: Evaluation of nurse-centered antiretroviral treatment at rural health centers in Rwanda
Shumbusho F, van Griensven J, Lowrance D. PLoS Med. 2009 Oct;6(10):e1000163. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
decorative spacerExpanding antiretroviral options in resource-limited settings-a cost-effectiveness analysis
Bendavid E, Wood R, Katzenstein DA. Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009 Sep;52(1):106-13. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
decorative spacerChanging global essential medicines norms to improve access to AIDS treatment: lessons from Brazil
Nunn A, Da Fonseca E, and Gruskin S. Global Public Health. 2009;4(2):117. [PDF, 198K]
decorative spacerHIV drug policies and South markets: Settling controversies
Daniele Dionisio, Claudio Fabbri, Daniela Messeri. Therapy. 2008. 5(5). 707-717. [PDF, 373]
decorative spacerEvolution of antiretroviral drug costs in Brazil in the context of free and universal access to AIDS treatment
Nunn AS, Fonseca EM, Bastos FI, Gruskin S, Salomon JA. PLoS Medicine. 2007, Nov; 4(11) 1804-1817.
decorative spacerForecast of demand for antiretroviral drugs in low and middle-income countries: 2007-2008
Galarraga O, O'Brien ME, Gutierrez JP, Renaud-Thery F, Nguimfack BD, Beusenberg M, et al. AIDS 2007 Jul;21 Suppl 4:S97-103. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
decorative spacerHow far will we need to go to reach HIV-infected people in rural South Africa?
Wilson DP, Blower S. BMC Med 2007 Jun 19;5:16. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
decorative spacerTraining and HIV-Treatment Scale-Up: Establishing an Implementation Research Agenda
McCarthy E, O'Brien M, Rodriguez W. PLoS Med. 2006 Jul;3(7):989-993.
decorative spacerMonitoring The Scale-up of Antiretroviral Therapy Programmes: Methods to Estimate Coverage
Boerma JT, Stanecki KA, Newell ML, Luo C, Beusenberg M, Garnett GP, Little K, Calleja JG, Crowley S, Kim JY, Zaniewski E, Walker N, Stover J, Ghys PD. Bull World Health Organ. 2006 Feb;84(2):145-50. [PDF, 123K]
decorative spacerDesigning Equitable Antiretroviral Allocation Strategies in Resource-Constrained Countries
Wilson DP, Blower SM. PLoS Med. 2005 Feb;2(2):e50.
decorative spacerGeneric HIV Drugs--Enlightened Policy for Global Health
Wainberg MA. N Engl J Med. 2005 Feb 24;352(8):747-50.
decorative spacerHard Choices: Rationing Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV/AIDS in Africa
Rosen S, Sanne I, Collier A, Simon JL. Lancet. 2005 Jan 22-28;365(9456):354-6. [PDF, 53K]
decorative spacerExpanding Access to Antiretroviral Therapy in Sub-Saharan Africa: Avoiding the Pitfalls and Dangers, Capitalizing on the Opportunities
McCoy D, Chopra M, Loewenson R, Aitken JM, Ngulube T, Muula A, Ray S, Kureyi T, Ijumba P, Rowson M. Am J Public Health. 2005 Jan;95(1):18-22.
Guidelines and Best Practices
decorative spacerAntiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection in Adults and Adolescents: Recommendations for a Public Health Approach
World Health Organization, 2010. [PDF, 1.76MB]
decorative spacerAntiretroviral Therapy of HIV Infection in Infants and Children in Resource-Limited Settings: Towards Universal Access, Recommendations for a Public Health Approach
World Health Organization, August 7, 2006. [PDF, 1.6MB]
decorative spacerGuidance on Ethics and Equitable Access to HIV Treatment and Care
WHO, November 30, 2004. [PDF, 482K]
Policy Reports, Papers, and Briefs
decorative spacerFinancing the Response to AIDS in Low- and Middle-income Countries
Kates J, Lief E, Abila C. Kaiser Family Foundation, UNAIDS. July 2009. [PDF, 119K]
decorative spacerMissing The Target #5: Improving AIDS Drug Access and Advancing Health Care for All
International Treatment Preparedness Coalition (ITPC), December 2007 [PDF, 1MB]
decorative spacerUntangling The Web of Price Reductions: A Pricing Guide for the Purchase of ARVs in Developing Countries (11th Addition)
Médecins Sans Frontières, July 2008. [PDF,795K] Also available in French, Portuguese and Spanish. An update from January 2009 is available.
decorative spacerMissing The Target #4: Time is Running Out to End AIDS -- Treatment and Prevention for All!
International Treatment Preparedness Coalition, July 18, 2007 [PDF, 1MB]
decorative spacerToo Little for Too Few: Challenges for Effective and Accessible Antiretroviral Therapy
Médecins Sans Frontières, August 2006. [PDF, 1.3MB]
decorative spacerProgress on Global Access to HIV Antiretroviral Therapy: A Report on 3 by 5 and Beyond
WHO, UNAIDS, March 2006. [PDF, 2.7MB]
decorative spacerAction Today, A Foundation for Tomorrow: The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief--Second Annual Report to Congress
Office of the United States Global AIDS Coordinator, February 8, 2006. [PDF, 2MB] Second annual report to Congress.
decorative spacerHIV InSite Overview of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR)
Includes core documents, program management tools, and related resources. Updated Frequently.
decorative spacerEquity and Fair Process in Scaling Up Antiretroviral Treatment: Potentials and Challenges in the United Republic of Tanzania: Case Study
World Health Organization, 2006. [PDF, 285K]
decorative spacerAchieving an HIV-Free Generation: Recommendations for a New American HIV Strategy
Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS, December 2005. [PDF, 9.8MB]
decorative spacerThe Practice of Charging User Fees at the Point of Service Delivery for HIV/AIDS Treatment and Care
WHO, November 2005. In English and French.
decorative spacerGlobal Fund Debt Conversion: A Joint Report from Advocacy International and the Global AIDS Alliance
Ann Pettifor, Conrad Barwa, Paul Zeitz. Advocacy International, Global AIDS Alliance, July 2005. [PDF, 1.5MB]
decorative spacerSources and Prices of Selected Drugs and Diagnostics for People Living With HIV/AIDS
WHO, UNICEF Supply Division, UNAIDS, Médecins Sans Frontières, June 2005.
decorative spacerSelection of Antiretroviral Medications Provided Under U.S. Emergency Plan Is Limited
United States Government Accountability Office, January 2005. [PDF, 750K]
decorative spacerHow Many People Should be on Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV/AIDS?
Roger England. Institute for Health Sector Development, October 2004. [PDF, 56K]
decorative spacerAccess to HIV Treatment and Care
UNAIDS, July 6, 2004. [PDF, 118K] Also available in Spanish, French, and Russian.
decorative spacerCoverage of Selected Services for HIV/AIDS Prevention, Care and Support in Low and Middle Income Countries in 2003
USAID, UNAIDS, WHO, UNICEF, the POLICY Project, June 2004. [PDF, 601K]
Conference Reports and Proceedings
decorative spacerMonitoring Equity and Health Systems Issues in ART Programmes in Southern Africa: Report of a Regional Meeting
Southern African Regional Network on Equity in Health (EQUINET), Lilongwe, Malawi, October 7-8, 2004. [PDF, 376K]
Research Summaries
decorative spacerPrinciples, Issues and Options for Strengthening Health Systems for Treatment Access and Equitable Responses to HIV and AIDS in Southern Africa
Southern African Regional Network on Equity in Health (EQUINET), March 2004. [PDF, 300K]
Newsletter Articles
decorative spacerGetting Antiretrovirals to Where They Are Needed: Drug Procurement and Quality
Theo Smart. In: HIV & AIDS Treatment in Practice, April 6, 2005
Program Management Materials
decorative spacerProcurement & Supply Management Toolbox
A central repository for a wide range of health-related procurement supply management tools. The Toolbox facilitates quick selection and access to tools in the public domain. WHO, 2008.
decorative spacerWHO List of Prequalified Medicinal Products
A database with information on formulation, origin, and maker for TB, malaria and HIV medications preapproved by the WHO. 2008.
decorative spacerAntiretroviral (ARV) Price List
The Clinton Foundation HIV/AIDS Initiative (CHAI), April 2009. [PDF, 122 KB] Also available in Spanish, French, Portuguese, and Dominican.
decorative spacerSupply Chain Management Implications for HIV/AIDS Policymakers and Program Managers
DELIVER/John Snow International, 2004. [PDF, 836K]
Treatment Access and Advocacy Organizations
Access in Developing World
decorative spacerGlobal Network of People Living with HIV/AIDS
(GNP+) Includes contact information for regional networks.
decorative spacerHealth Action International
Global network of health, development, consumer, and other public interest groups in over 70 countries working for a more rational use of medicinal drugs.
decorative spacerHealth Global Access Project
(HealthGAP) Website features published press articles, research, education, and online discussion on issues of global treatment access.
decorative spacerJournalists Against AIDS Nigeria
(JAAIDS) In 2002, launched an advocacy campaign to support access to affordable treatment and care for Nigerians living with HIV/AIDS. Web site includes links to reports, news, and electronic discussion forum.
decorative spacerMédecins Sans Frontières
(MSF) An international humanitarian aid organization that provides emergency medical assistance to populations in danger in more than 80 countries. Advocates for access to HIV medications.
decorative spacerTreatment Action Campaign
Based in South Africa; highlights disparities and problems in accessing HIV/AIDS treatment and campaigns for their elimination.
decorative spacerUNICEF Supply Division
Analyzes sources and prices of selected drugs and diagnostics for people living with HIV/AIDS.
Access in Europe and the United States
decorative spacerACT UP/Philadelphia
decorative spacerAIDS Action
Promotes research and undertakes educational activities related to HIV/AIDS treatment and prevention.
decorative spacerAIDS Treatment Data Network
(ATDN) Community-based organization providing treatment education and counseling services. Site includes clinical trials information, facts sheets, and treatment access resources.
decorative spacerEuropean AIDS Treatment Group
(EATG) Pan-European organization that seeks to ensure rapid access to state-of-the-art treatment and information, and to enable people with HIV and their advocates to provide maximum input into the drug testing and approval processes.
decorative spacerNational Alliance of State and Territorial AIDS Directors (NASTAD)
NASTAD is a nonprofit national association of state health department HIV/AIDS program directors who have programmatic responsibility for administering HIV/AIDS health care, prevention, education, and supportive services programs funded by state and federal governments.
decorative spacerNational Association of People with AIDS
(NAPWA) U.S. advocacy organization that focuses on community development and training as well as treatment and prevention education.
decorative spacerNational Minority AIDS Council
(NMAC) Organizes regional training on treatment issues, conducts needs assessments on treatment issues in communities of color, and provides technical assistance to community-based organizations on treatment education for clients and service providers.
decorative spacerNational AIDS Treatment Advocacy Project
(NATAP) Educates diverse communities on the newest HIV treatments and advocates on treatment and policy issues.
decorative spacerProject Inform
Disseminates treatment information and advocates for enlightened regulatory, research, and funding policies. Site features extensive treatment information.
decorative spacerTreatment Action Group
(TAG) Advocates for larger and more efficient AIDS research efforts, both public and private, as well as access to HIV/AIDS treatment and information.
Drug Pricing and Intellectual Property Rights
decorative spacerConsumer Project on Technology
Focuses on intellectual property rights and health care, electronic commerce, and competition policy. Focus is on antiretrovirals.
decorative spacerManagement Sciences for Health
Publishes the International Drug Price Indicator Guide and manages the International Network for Rational Use of Drugs (INRUD).
decorative spacerWorld Health Organization, Essential Drugs and Medicines Policy
Seeks to provide global guidance on essential drugs and medicines, and works with countries, at their request, to implement national drug policies to ensure equity of access to essential drugs, drug quality and safety, and rational use of drugs.
decorative spacerWorld Trade Organization
Includes page on Trade-related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS).
Access Mechanisms
Developing World (Donation Programs)
decorative spacerAID for AIDS
Distributes unused HIV medications to Latin America. Web site in English and Spanish. Also site for AID For AIDS Peru (in Spanish).
Sponsored by an NGO consortium, this site contains information about drug donation to developing countries, including donation guidelines, good donation practices, and raising awareness of need. Site in English, Dutch, French. German, Italian, Russian, and Spanish.
United States
decorative spacerAccess Project
The Access Project collects and distributes information about medications available for HIV and AIDS through Medicaid, AIDS Drug Assistance Programs (ADAPs), and national pharmaceutical industry patient assistance/expanded access programs. This site is an excellent source of information about treatments.
decorative spacerNeedy
A comprehensive website providing information on pharmaceutical company-sponsored patient assistance programs by generic drug name, brand drug name, program list, and company list (including companies without patient assistant programs).