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Side Effects of Antiretroviral Drugs: Related Resources
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decorative spacerStudy Suggests the Commonly Prescribed Antiretroviral Drug Efavirenz Attacks Brain Cells
Johns Hopkins Medicine, News and Publications; September 27, 2012.
Related Knowledge Base Chapters
decorative spacerAntiretroviral Drugs Profiles
Susa Coffey, MD.
decorative spacerMetabolic Complications of HIV Therapy
Dominic C. Chow, Larry J. Day, Scott A. Souza, Cecilia M. Shikuma, May 2006.
decorative spacerSymptom Management Guidelines
Lisa Capaldini, July 2004.
decorative spacerInteractions of Antiretroviral Drugs: Related Resources
decorative spacerAdherence to HIV Antiretroviral Therapy
Edward L. Machtinger, MD, David R. Bangsberg, MD, May 2005.
Journal Articles
decorative spacerAdverse events associated with nevirapine and efavirenz-based first-line antiretroviral therapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Shubber Z, Calmy A, Andrieux-Meyer I, Vitoria M, Renaud-Thery F, Shaffer N, Hargreaves S, Mills EJ, Ford N. AIDS. 2013 Jan 22. [Epub ahead of print]
decorative spacerSystematic review of antiretroviral-associated lipodystrophy: lipoatrophy, but not central fat gain, is an antiretroviral adverse drug reaction
de Waal R, Cohen K, Maartens G. PLoS One. 2013 May 28;8(5):e63623.
decorative spacerTolerability of HIV integrase inhibitors
Lee FJ, Carr A. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2012 Sep;7(5):422-8. Review.
decorative spacerRenal toxicity associated with antiretroviral therapy
Calza L. HIV Clin Trials. 2012 Jul-Aug;13(4):189-211. Review.
decorative spacerLiver toxicity of antiretroviral drugs
Jones M, Núñez M. Semin Liver Dis. 2012 May;32(2):167-76. Review.
decorative spacerNucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor toxicity and mitochondrial DNA
Koczor CA, Lewis W. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2010 Dec;6(12):1493-504. Review.
decorative spacerA new era of antiretroviral drug toxicity
Calmy A, Hirschel B, Cooper DA, et al. Antivir Ther. 2009;14(2):165-79. Review.
decorative spacerAdverse effects of antiretrovirals in HIV-infected pregnant women
Zuk DM, Hughes CA, Foisy MM, et al. Ann Pharmacother. 2009 Jun;43(6):1028-35.
decorative spacerNeuropsychological functioning and antiretroviral treatment in HIV/AIDS: a review
Cysique LA, Brew BJ. Neuropsychol Rev. 2009 Jun;19(2):169-85.
decorative spacerThe consequences of HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy use for cardiovascular disease risk: shifting paradigms
Baker JV, Henry WK, Neaton JD. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2009 May;4(3):176-82.
decorative spacerAdverse drug reactions to antiretroviral medication
Roca B. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2009 Jan 1;14:1785-92. Review.
decorative spacerAdverse effects of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1 infected children
Shah I. J Trop Pediatr. 2006 Aug;52(4):244-8.
Guidelines and Best Practices
decorative spacerLimitations to Treatment Safety and Efficacy: Adverse Effects of Antiretroviral Agents
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents.

Excerpt from the current version of the Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents.

decorative spacerManagement of Medication Toxicity or Intolerance
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Panel on Antiretroviral Therapy and Medical Management of HIV-Infected Children.

Excerpt from the current version of the Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection.

decorative spacerAppendix A: Supplement: Safety and Toxicity of Individual Antiretroviral Agents in Pregnancy
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Panel on Treatment of HIV-Infected Pregnant Women and Prevention of Perinatal Transmission.

Excerpt from the current version of the Recommendations for Use of Antiretroviral Drugs in Pregnant HIV-1-Infected Women for Maternal Health and Interventions to Reduce Perinatal HIV Transmission in the United States .

decorative spacerMonitoring and Substitutions for ARV Drug Toxicities
World Health Organization. Consolidated Guidelines on the Use of Antiretroviral Drugs for Treating and Preventing HIV Infection. Chapter 7: Clinical Guidance across the Continuum of Care--Antiretroviral Therapy. June 2013.
decorative spacerLong-Term Complications Of Antiretroviral Therapy
New York State Department of Health AIDS Institute; May 2007.
decorative spacer Management of Metabolic Complications Associated with Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV-1 InfectionRecommendations of an International AIDS Society-USA Panel, JAIDS, November 1, 2002.
Conference Reports and Proceedings
decorative spacer Complications of HIV Disease, Viral Hepatitis, and Antiretroviral Therapy
Anne F. Luetkemeyer, Diane V. Havlir, Judith S. Currier. Topics in Antiviral Medicine; International Antiviral Society-USA; April/May 2013. Highlights of the 20th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections; Atlanta; March 3-6, 2013. [PDF, 424K]
decorative spacerInternational Workshops on Adverse Drug Reactions and Comorbidities in HIV
Online Books and Chapters
decorative spacerAdverse Reactions to HIV Medications Chapter: Guide for HIV/AIDS Clinical Care
AIDS Education and Training Centers National Resource Center, 2014.
Newsletter Articles
decorative spacerDiagnosis and Management of Body Morphology Changes and Lipid Abnormalities Associated with HIV Infection and Its Therapies
David A. Wohl. Topics in HIV Medicine; International Antiviral Society-USA; July/August 2004. [PDF, 132K]
Provider Education and Training
decorative spacerAdverse Effects and Comorbidities
Clinical Care Options. A series of modules covering various topics relating to the prevention and management of side effects associated with the use of ARV medications. Updated regularly.
decorative spacerAntiretroviral Rx: Adverse Effects
HIV Web Study. 7 case-based learning modules for clinicians, from the Northwest AIDS Education and Training Center and the University of Washington. Updated regularly.
Clinician Support Tools
decorative spacerTable 13. ART-Associated Common and/or Severe Side Effects
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents. Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents; February 12, 2013. [JPG, 1.9MB]
Patient and Community Education
decorative spacerA Practical Guide to HIV Drug Side Effects
Canadian AIDS Treatment Information Exchange (CATIE); 2012. A comprehensive online book for patients covering a wide variety of common ARV side effects. Also available in PDF format.
decorative spacerSide Effects
NAM-AIDSMAP; 2013. A patient-education booklet discussing possible adverse effects of ARV medications and how to manage them. Also available as an online flipbook.
decorative spacerSide Effects
A series of fact sheets for patients on side effects and how to deal with them, from
decorative spacerManaging Side Effects of HIV Medications
New York State Department of Health AIDS Institute; November 2006. An online educational booklet for patients.
decorative spacerSide Effects of Anti-HIV Medications
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; October 2005. A series of fact sheets for patients on major side effects, including hepatotoxicity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, lactic acidosis, and skin rash.
decorative spacerAIDSinfo Drug Database
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) project providing information on antiretroviral treatment and drugs that treat or prevent AIDS-related illness.
Succinct, easy-to-read information on HIV drugs and related issues.
decorative spacerAnti-HIV/OI/TB Therapeutics Database
Computerized databases containing chemical structures and biological data established at the Division of AIDS (DAIDS) of NIAID to foster developments in the chemotherapy of HIV, opportunistic infections, and tuberculosis and to serve as an information source.
decorative spacerDatabase of Antiretroviral Drug Interactions
Search by antiretroviral drug, interacting drug, or interacting drug class. Maintained by HIV InSite.
Site features information on interactions with each class of antiretroviral drugs. Maintained by the Liverpool HIV Pharmacology Group, University of Liverpool.
decorative spacerHIV Medication Guide
Features information on single- and multiple-HIV drug interactions, a customizable medication chart function, patient drug pamphlets, and more. Available in English and French from JAG enterprises, a clinical pharmacy consultation firm.
decorative spacerJohns Hopkins HIV Guide
An on-line decision support tool designed to assist clinicians in the diagnosis, management and treatment of HIV/AIDS. Requires registration.
decorative spacerNIAID/DAIDS: HIV/AIDS Treatment
An easy-to-read site with a comprehensive overview of the discovery and development of AIDS therapeutics, from the Division of AIDS (DAIDS) of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID).
decorative spacerToronto General Hospital Immunodeficiency Clinic
HIV treatment resources, including drug interactions tables, fact sheets, and other information for health care professionals.
decorative spacerClinical Pharmacology
Up-to-date, peer reviewed, clinically-relevant information on all U.S. drugs, as well as off-label uses and dosages, herbal supplements, nutritional products, and new and investigational drugs. Requires paid subscription.
decorative spacerCytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table
Designed as a hypothesis testing, teaching, and reference tool for physicians and researchers interested in drug interactions that are the result of competition for, or effects on the human cytochrome P450 system. Includes links to canned PubMed searches.
decorative spacerFDA Center for Drug Evaluation and Research
(CDER) Reports and information on prescription and over-the-counter drugs, as well as regulatory issues and the drug approval process, public health alerts, and more.
Physicians' Desk Reference online, featuring drug and healthcare information, with separate interfaces for physicians, pharmacists, physician assistants, nurses, and consumers. Registration is required, and is either free or fee-based, depending on the level of access desired.
decorative spacerRxList
Index of information on pharmaceutical products from WebMD. Features search function for looking up drugs by the pill imprint code, color, or shape.
Adverse Event Reporting and Emergencies
decorative spacerAmerican Association of Poison Control Centers
List of poison control centers.
decorative spacerAntiretroviral Pregnancy Registry
Intended to provide an early signal of any major teratogenic effect associated with a prenatal exposure to the products monitored through the registry, a voluntary prospective, exposure-registration, observational study designed to collect and evaluate data on the outcomes of pregnancy exposures to antiretroviral products.
decorative spacerMedWatch
FDA safety information and adverse event reporting program for drugs and other medical products.
decorative spacerU.S. Pharmacopeial Convention
A scientific nonprofit organization that sets standards for the identity, strength, quality, and purity of medicines, food ingredients, and dietary supplements manufactured, distributed and consumed worldwide.
decorative spacerVaccine Adverse Event Reporting System
(VAERS) Vaccine surveillance program of the FDA Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research.